The fresh shoots of many spruces are a natural source of vitamin C. Captain Cook made alcoholic sugar-based spruce beer during his sea voyages in order to prevent scurvy in his crew. First-year seedlings are often killed, and larger plants may become too deformed for planting. For other uses, see.  Deer mice, voles, chipmunks, and shrews can consume large quantities of seed; 1 mouse can eat 2000 seeds per night. Density: … (1982). Seeding as a means of, Smith, J.H.G. , This article is about the tree. Beyond that, determination can become more difficult. Criteria vary, of course, but Noble and Ronco (1978), for instance, considered that seedlings 4 to 5 years old, or 8 cm to 10 cm tall, warranted the designation "established", since only unusual factors such as snow mold, fire, trampling, or predation would then impair regeneration success. Species classification for seeds collected from spruce stands in which introgressive hybridization between white and Sitka spruces (P. sitchensis) may have occurred is important for determining appropriate cultural regimens in the nursery. Res.  Population levels oscillate, sometimes reaching extreme outbreak levels that can cause extreme defoliation of and damage to spruce trees.  But, if an extended photoperiod is provided for Sitka spruce, seedlings become unacceptably tall by the end of the first growing season . If, for instance, white spruce grown at container nurseries in southwestern British Columbia are not given an extended photoperiod, leader growth ceases early in the first growing season, and seedlings do not reach the minimum height specifications. On white spruce, infected needles are usually retained on the tree into the following summer. Dead needles show rows of black fruiting bodies. Three years after shelterwood felling in subalpine Alberta, dominant regeneration averaged 5.5 cm in height in scarified blocks, and 7.3 cm in non-scarified blocks (Day 1970), possibly reflecting diminished fertility with the removal of the A horizon. Examples of hardwood trees include alder, balsa, beech, hickory, mahogany, maple, oak, teak, and walnut. Res. Seedfall and establishment of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in clearcut openings in Colorado. The most common species in North America are oaks, maple, hickory, birch, beech and cherry. Min. Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum L.) may damage spruce (Nienstaedt 1957), but prefer red pine (McLeod 1956). 182 p. Horton, K.W. picea was reported on white and Norway spruces in Ontario (Jorgensen and Cafley 1961) and Quebec (Ouellette and Bard 1962). Once shed, seeds contribute to the diet of small mammals, e.g., deer mice, red-backed voles, mountain voles (Microtus montanus), and chipmunks (Eutamias minimus). Solid hardwood is available in both pre-finished and unfinished boards.  In Ontario, only trees of low vigour were affected, but in Quebec vigorous trees were also infected. Div., Ottawa ON, Tech. Deciduous angiosperms like oak are hardwoods, while gymnosperms like spruce are softwoods. Dep. (1956). Foraging by squirrels for winter buds (Rowe 1952) has not been reported in relation to young plantations, but Wagg (1963) noted that at Hinton AB, red squirrels were observed cutting the lateral and terminal twigs and feeding on the vegetative and flower buds of white spruce. Development of a white spruce plantation.  A recent study found that P. breweriana had a basal position, followed by P. sitchensis, and the other species were further divided into three clades, suggesting that Picea originated in North America.  Bark-stripping of white spruce by black bear (Euarctos americanus perniger) is locally important in Alaska (Lutz 1951), but the bark of white spruce is not attacked by field mice (Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord), even in years of heavy infestation. Twig tips killed during growth the previous year shows a characteristic crook. 1972.  Species classification of seedlots collected in areas where hybridization of white and Sitka spruces has been reported has depended on (i) easily measured cone scale characters of seed trees, especially free scale length, (ii) visual judgements of morphological characters, e.g., growth rhythm, shoot and root weight, and needle serration, or (iii) some combination of (i) and (ii) (Yeh and Arnott 1986). An important albeit indirect biotic constraint on spruce establishment is the depredation of seed by squirrels. Northern Affairs National Resour., For. USDA, For. Serv., Victoria BC, Tech. Sta., Portland OR, Gen. Tech. This is a broadly defined community with several regional and edaphic … The fungicide Chlorthalonil is registered for controlling this needle cast (Davis 1997).. 1956. Mortality rates generally decrease sharply thereafter, but losses often remain high for some years. Leafl. 1978).  Secondly, morphological characters are markedly influenced by ontogenetic and environmental influences, so that to discern spruce hybrid seedlot composition with accuracy, hybrid seedlots must differ substantially in morphology from both parent species. Spruce wood is soft and light, it is marketed with pine and balsam fir as lumber because they are similar in hardness and strength. Outbreaks involving < 30% of spruce seedlings in seedbeds have been traced to seed lots in which only 0.1% to 3% of seeds were infested.
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